Are Faculae and Sunspots Related and How Are Faculae Used To Predict When Sunspots Will Appear?

There may be some connection between the two solar phenomena known as faculae and sunspots.

While sunspots are cooler, darker patches of the photosphere, faculae are hotter, brighter areas.

Faculae always appear a few hours or days before new sunspots develop. Sunspots at the edge, or limb, of the Sun’s disk, are accompanied by faculae.

Faculae, however, also appear without sunspots, frequently at the Sun’s magnetic poles.

Faculae are produced by concentrations of magnetic field lines.