Healthiest Cooking Methods for a Nutritional Diet

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There are several methods to prepare juicy and delectable cuisine without adding many unneeded ingredients. While most individuals are aware that they should avoid using the fryer while preparing healthy meals, many do not consider how their cooking method impacts the nutritional composition of their entrée. The nutritional content of the meals you serve is … Read more

How do antibacterial cutting boards and toys help prevent the spread of bacterial infections?

how do antibacterial cutting boards and toys help prevent the spread of bacterial infections

An antibacterial impregnated in a toy or in some other consumer product must be registered with the Environmental Protection Agency. Companies that manufacture such things have correctly perceived that germs on cutting boards and in children’s toys are among those people worry most about, and they’ve come to the rescue with antibacterial products they claim … Read more

How do antibacterial cleaners and soaps do more harm than good?

how do antibacterial cleaners and soaps do more harm than good

The company that makes Lysol announced in a television commercial that they are now selling a kind of paper towel soaked in liquid disinfectant, “kills 99.9 percent of germs”, the same percentage that Tide with Bleach claims to wipe out. There are all sorts of products, hundreds of them, that are advertised as antibacterial, including … Read more

What Infectious Diseases can you catch at a Tattoo Parlor?

what infectious diseases can you catch at a tattoo parlor

A tattoo parlor doesn’t seem like a particularly salubrious place, and having someone stick a needle through your skin seems obviously to carry some risk, but the risk of getting any blood-borne disease by getting a tattoo are extremely low, at least in the United States. Although it is of course theoretically possible to transmit … Read more

How do Infectious Diseases spread on Airplanes and How are they prevented?

how do infectious diseases spread on airplanes and how are they prevented

What happens when you spend six or eight hours in an airplane with 300 other people, breathing recirculated air? People sometimes believe they’ve been made sick by flying in an airplane, but in fact it’s difficult to prove that anyone is any more likely to contract an infectious disease spending three hours in an airplane … Read more

Where do Colds come from and What causes the Common Cold?

where do colds come from and what causes the common cold

If we want to search for something good to come out of the 1918 disaster, perhaps we can find it in the spur to research in virology that it provoked. In the 10 years after 1918, thousands of books and articles were published about the flu. One large problem posed by the flu virus is … Read more

How do we find out about new Flu strains in time to develop new vaccines against them?

how do we find out about new flu strains in time to develop new vaccines against them scaled

How do we find out about new strains in time to develop new vaccines against them? The World Health Organization, in cooperation with dozens of other national and international health groups, maintains the Global Outbreak Alert and Response program to provide continuous surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks around the world. This program covers all kinds … Read more

Where does the Influenza Virus come from and What causes the Flu?

where does the influenza virus come from and what causes the flu scaled

Although you might not think of the flu as a killer disease, an average of 20,000 Americans die of it every year, that’s about four times as many people as die from the diarrheal illnesses caused by eating contaminated food. Yet many people who are sure they are going to suffer an agonizing death from … Read more

Where does Bottled Water come from and Is Bottled Water safe to drink?

where does bottled water come from and is bottled water safe to drink

If the bottle label reads “well water,” “artesian well water,” “spring water,” or “mineral water,” that certainly sounds healthful, and may even be healthful, but such sources can be polluted with cryptosporidium, too. There is a large variety of water brands, and an almost equally large variety of sources from which the water comes. A … Read more

Where does the Giardia lamblia Parasite come from and How common is Giardiasis?

where does the giardia lamblia parasite come from and how common is giardiasis

Giardia lamblia is the other common protozoan parasite that infests drinking water. During the 1990s, reports of giardiasis increased all over the country. In 1997–1998, the latest years for which the CDC has published statistics, New York State, including New York City, had the largest number of cases, 3,673. But before you conclude from this … Read more

Where does Malaria come from and How does Malaria spread?

where does malaria come from and how does malaria spread

Rubbing on insect repellent and slapping at mosquitoes is a summertime tradition. Just the smell of a spritz of Off! gives some people Proustian recollections of fun-filled days at summer camp. But until the 1920s, mosquitoes were a cause of deadly epidemics in the United States, and everyone now knows that they’re back again carrying … Read more

Where does West Nile Virus come from and How does West Nile Virus spread?

where does west nile virus come from and how does west nile virus spread

In late August 1999, the New York City Department of Health discovered an unusual outbreak of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) concentrated among a group of elderly people living not far from La Guardia Airport in the northern part of Queens, one of New York City’s five boroughs. The Department of Health, in cooperation with … Read more

How do the companies that sell antibacterial soap and hand cleaners label their products?

how do the companies that sell antibacterial soap and hand cleaners label their products

Why do they print directions on the back of your liquid antibacterial hand soap bottle? Do you really need “directions” on how to use soap? Antibacterial products used to clean bathrooms or kitchen sinks are not drugs, and therefore their labeling is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission. Same for ordinary (i.e., non-antibacterial) soap. But … Read more

How do you catch Malaria in New York?

how do you catch malaria in new york

Suffolk County, New York, has beautiful beaches and beautiful people. Rich New Yorkers own elaborate summer houses there, in different neighborhoods from the local year-rounders who serve them, of course. Those who don’t own can rent them, rentals at $20,000 a month and more are common. Some people commute to jobs in Manhattan from Suffolk. … Read more

How dirty is Money and Does Money spread contagious diseases?

how dirty is money and does money spread contagious diseases

Rats, mice, flies, cockroaches, these are just things you can run into at almost any restaurant at one time or another. Every time you go out, you’re exposing yourself to something. In fact, those dollar bills in your wallet, the ones you plan to spend for the taxi ride downtown before you even do anything, … Read more

What are the Risks of getting a contagious Disease at the Gym?

what are the risks of getting a contagious disease at the gym

We all know it’s healthy to go to the gym regularly, but did you ever wonder what’s in the sweat of the guy who used the exercise machine just before you? Sure, he wipes off the machine with that towel, but that’s not exactly sterilizing, is it? Are you supposed to touch that stuff, and … Read more

What types of germs and diseases can you get at a Nail Salon?

what types of germs and diseases can you get at a nail salon

Ever get your nails done at a nail salon? A lot of people do: nail care is a $6 billion a year industry in the United States, and there are tens of thousands of nail salons all across the country, 7,500 in California alone. One day in 2001 a dermatologist called the health department and … Read more

What infectious diseases can you get when riding the Subway or Bus?

what infectious diseases can you get when riding the subway or bus

A lot of people worry about “picking up something” while they’re using public transportation. In New York City, the most feared location for mysophobes is undoubtedly the subway. Everyone squashed together, sneezing, coughing, wiping their noses, and then grabbing those poles to keep from falling over every time the train stops, starts, or lurches. The … Read more

What types of Viruses and Bacteria do Rats and Mice carry?

what types of viruses and bacteria do rats and mice carry

Some people love mice and rats and keep them as pets. The white ones with the pink eyes are nice, very soft and furry, and many people love them as much as they love their dogs. And they may be man’s best friend in another sense as well: they are by far the most common … Read more

How safe is the food at a fancy Restaurant?

how safe is the food at a fancy restaurant

You’re relaxed, sipping your wine, waiting for your appetizer, looking forward to a nice quiet dinner: broiled lamb chops provençal, your favorite. The people at the next table have just left, and their dirty dishes are being collected by the busboy, who was rubbing his cheek, or was it his nose?, on his way over … Read more

How common is Rabies and Which animals carry the Rabies virus?

how common is rabies and which animals carry the rabies virus

Everyone’s afraid of rabies, but almost no one in the United States ever gets it. Even a hundred years ago, it was very rare, about 100 people a year got it in the early twentieth century, and today, thanks to widespread vaccination of domestic animals, the average yearly number of human cases is 2 or … Read more

What types of Germs and Diseases can you catch in Public Toilets?

what types of germs and diseases can you catch in public toilets

There are lots of rumors and frightening stories that go around, but some of them just aren’t true. You can’t get syphilis from a toilet seat, no matter what you may have heard, and HIV is not transmitted by contact with environmental surfaces in public bathrooms. You can’t get herpes from contact with toilet seats, … Read more

What diseases can you get when swimming in a lake, river, ocean or pool?

what diseases can you get when swimming in a lake river ocean or pool

Being bitten by infected ticks and mosquitoes, alas, is not the only germ danger you face while enjoying the great outdoors. In fact, just going for a swim can make you sick, even if you never get near an insect. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Shigella are out to get you, and they’re lurking where you swim, … Read more

What are Arboviruses and Where do Arboviruses come from?

what are arboviruses and where do arboviruses come from

The group of viruses that are transmitted by insects are called (and this is not a technical term) “arboviruses.” The term is a coinage based on “ARthropod BOrne Virus.” West Nile, transmitted by a mosquito, is one of these. There are several other viruses transmitted by insects to humans, all of them quite rare in … Read more

Where does Toxoplasmosis come from and How do cats spread Toxoplasmosis?

where does toxoplasmosis come from and how do cats spread toxoplasmosis

You may have heard that you can get something called toxoplasmosis from your cat. Toxoplasma gondii, the organism that causes the disease is a protozoan parasite that infects most species of warm blooded animals. It has a fairly complex life cycle consisting of three different stages. The first is the tachyzoite, the form that causes … Read more

How do pet reptiles spread diseases and How are infections prevented?

how do pet reptiles spread diseases and how are infections prevented

Some people never learn. In October 1996, a three-week-old boy was brought into a hospital emergency room in Arizona suffering from a fever of 103.6, plus vomiting and bloody diarrhea that had been going on for more than two weeks. Why it took two weeks for the parents to bring him in is almost certainly … Read more

Where does Chlamydia psittaci come from and How do birds spread Avian chlamydiosis?

where does chlamydia psittaci come from and how do birds spread avian chlamydiosis scaled

You may remember Chlamydia trachomatis, it’s the bacterium that causes the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, chlamydia. A closely related species, Chlamydia psittaci, infects pet birds (and more rarely certain wild birds as well) and can be transmitted to humans, who can get flu-like symptoms from it, and sometimes more serious … Read more

What bacterial infections are resistant to antibiotics and Why?

what bacterial infections are resistant to antibiotics and why

While resistant strains of the potentially deadly S. aureus bacterium have been known for some years to occur in hospitals, it is only recently that these strains have made their way into the community at large. In 1997, a seven-year-old girl from an urban area of Minnesota was admitted to a hospital with a temperature … Read more

How are most Diseases spread at Day Care Centers?

how are most diseases spread at day care centers

Shigellosis is another disease kids risk contracting in day care centers and passing on to their families. In 1991 there was an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, that involved 14 licensed day care centers, making a lot of people sick but, every cloud has a silver lining, giving researchers a chance … Read more

What types of infectious diseases can children catch at a Day Care Center?

what types of infectious diseases can children catch at a day care center

Rotavirus is a good example of the kind of disease that is easily transmitted in child care settings. There are others as well, most of them considerably less serious in their effects than rotavirus, but nevertheless things to watch out for. Among them is hepatitis A (HAV). Although there is a vaccine for it, hepatitis … Read more

How safe is Vaccination and What were the side effects of the Rotavirus Vaccine?

how safe is vaccination and what were the side effects of the rotavirus vaccine

The Internet can be a significant source of misinformation about vaccines. There are numerous sites that gather scare stories about vaccination based on little more than anecdotal reports from parents, and many chat rooms discussing vaccination in hysterical voices and without benefit of scientific information. This doesn’t mean that vaccines are without dangers, there are … Read more

How do Vaccines help prevent the spread of Infectious Diseases?

how do vaccines help prevent the spread of infectious diseases

Viruses are parasitic. They can only live and reproduce inside the cells of other animals or plants, in scientific terms, they are called obligate survive in one environment (if a germ can survive in more than one environment, it is called facultative); they are intracellular because they must live inside cells; they are molecular parasites … Read more

Where does Syphilis come from and How does Syphilis spread?

where does syphilis come from and how does syphilis spread

The Italians call it the French disease; the French call it the English disease. Russians blamed the Poles, the Poles blamed the Germans. At least since the sixteenth century, Europeans have been blaming each other, if it isn’t English, French, Polish, Russian, or German, then it’s Venetian or Neapolitan. Some believe Columbus brought it back … Read more

Where did Gonorrhea come from and How is a Gonorrhea infection treated?

where did gonorrhea come from and how is a gonorrhea infection treated

In 1998, 355,642 cases of gonorrhea were reported to the CDC. This was an 8.9 percent increase from the 1997 rate and the first increase since 1985. In 1999, the latest year for which complete figures are available, 360,076 cases of gonorrhea were reported, a 9.2 percent increase over the 1997 rate and a 1.2 … Read more

What is the Most Common STD and Where does Chlamydia come from?

what is the most common std and where does chlamydia come from

Chlamydia is probably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, even more common than herpes-2. There were more than 640,000 new cases of chlamydia reported in 2000 and more than 290,000 through the first six months of 2001. Since all diseases are underreported, and since most people with chlamydia are not even … Read more

How common are STDs and How are STIs prevented and treated?

how common are stds and how are stis prevented and treated

You may think that sexually transmitted infections are someone else’s problem, but in fact 55 million Americans have at least one sexually transmitted disease (STD). More than 45 million Americans have HSV-2, the sexually transmitted form of the herpes simplex virus, and a million more get it every year. There’s no cure for it. Two … Read more

Where does Listeria Bacteria come from and How is Listeriosis prevented?

where does listeria bacteria come from and how is listeriosis prevented

In the late summer and fall of 1998 Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive bacterium that lives everywhere in the world except Antarctica, caused about 40 illnesses in ten different U.S. states. The CDC in cooperation with state health departments in Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and Tennessee determined that all these cases came from a single strain … Read more

What causes Trichomoniasis and How is a Trichomoniasis infection treated?

what causes trichomoniasis and how is a trichomoniasis infection treated

Syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, papillomavirus, chlamydia, you’d think that would be enough bacteria and viruses to worry about, especially at a moment when you’re preoccupied with something more pressing. But there’s more. The cause of trichomoniasis is neither a bacterium nor a virus. It’s the cause of a microscopic parasite, a protozoan called Trichomonis vaginalis that … Read more

Why do Kids pick up so many Germs, Microbes, Bacteria, and Viruses?

why do kids pick up so many germs microbes bacteria and viruses

Kids are unquestionably messy, and the younger they are the messier they seem to be. Growing up involves an incessant series of encounters with germs of all kinds. Babies begin by fouling themselves with germ-laden feces, then as soon as they’re able to they start putting everything they can lift into their mouths. Next they … Read more

Are Antibiotics really necessary for children with Ear Infections?

are antibiotics really necessary for children with ear infections

Children in day care probably get more antibiotics prescribed for them than children who stay at home. A May 2001 Danish study followed children from birth in 1997 to the age of two years and found that enrollment in a day care center doubled a child’s likelihood of being prescribed an antibiotic. Whether this is … Read more

How does washing your hands help prevent the spread of germs and disease?

how does washing your hands help prevent the spread of germs and disease scaled

It may be some time before Mr. Lynn’s clean-hands identification mechanism is in widespread use, but in the meantime, you might want to wash your hands more often anyway, whether you can be caught at it or not. There is indisputable evidence that washing hands, we’re talking about the general public here, not surgical personnel, … Read more

Where does E. coli come from and How does E. coli bacteria spread?

where does e coli come from and how does e coli bacteria spread

More common than C. botulinum, and perhaps as notorious, is the bacterium Escherichia coli. There are hundreds of different serotypes of this gram-negative bacterium, any one of which can cause disease, and many of them are part of the normal bacterial fauna of the intestines. They can get into other parts of the body and … Read more

Where does Botulism Bacteria come from and What causes Botulism infections?

where does botulism bacteria come from and what causes botulism infections

On June 30, 1994, a 47-year-old man was admitted to a hospital in Arkansas. He was nauseated and his vision was blurry. His speech was slurred, and he was having difficulty swallowing. His gag reflex was impaired. His eyelids were drooping and his face muscles weren’t working properly, he seemed to have some sort of … Read more

How many different types of Germs, Bacteria, and Viruses live on a Toothbrush?

how many different types of germs bacteria and viruses live on a toothbrush

Shocking but true: your toothbrush is dirtier than your toilet seat. It is hard to predict exactly which germs are on your toothbrush right now, but staphylococci, coliforms, pseudomonads, streptococci, and at least one fungus, candida, have all been cultured from used toothbrushes. In one Australian study, staphylococci and streptococci were the most commonly found … Read more

Where does Salmonella come from and How does Salmonella Bacteria spread?

where does salmonella come from and how does salmonella bacteria spread

In 1999, the CDC tracked nine different food-borne illnesses caused by bacteria, and confirmed by laboratory analysis 10,697 cases. Salmonella infection accounted for 4,533 of these, a little more than 42 percent. Salmonellosis is actually caused by a group of bacteria. The most common serotypes in the United States are called Salmonella enteriditis and Salmonella … Read more

How does dirty Hospital Laundry increase the risk of disease transmission?

how does dirty hospital laundry increase the risk of disease transmission

Dirty laundry, as you might have guessed, certainly contains plenty of germs, including many that are pathogenic. Any cloth that touches your body is likely to become contaminated with whatever organisms are on your skin, and we know what can happen in the special case of underwear. But the Centers for Disease Control agrees with … Read more

How do Antimicrobial clothes, toys, and soap help prevent the spread of disease?

how do antimicrobial clothes toys and soap help prevent the spread of disease scaled

Many consumer products are advertised as having been treated with antimicrobial chemicals. These include not only clothing, but pens, cutting boards, toys, household cleaners, hand lotions, cat litter, soap, cotton swabs, toothbrushes, and various cosmetics. There are children’s pajamas, mattresses, and bed linens for sale that make such claims. The CDC is unequivocal about the … Read more

Where does Shigella Bacteria come from and How are Shigella infections treated?

where does shigella bacteria come from and how are shigella infections treated

Bacteriologists are quite proud when their name becomes attached to a disease causing organism. This is not true of other people, American Legion members are not at all happy about having Legionnaire’s disease named after them, and homeowners and real estate agents in Lyme, Connecticut, could have done without having their city’s name permanently attached … Read more

How many people don’t wash their hands after using the toilet?

how many people dont wash their hands after using the toilet

John Lynn, of Austin, Texas, thinks people don’t wash their hands often enough, and he thinks it’s about time someone did something about it. According to Patent Number 6,147,607, Mr. Lynn has designed a way of preventing people from slipping away from the bathroom without washing. He proposes a mechanism attached to a toilet handle … Read more

Where does Rabies come from and How does the Rabies Virus spread?

where does rabies come from and how does the rabies virus spread

Rabies is a virus, and the usual route of transmission to humans is by the bite of an infected animal. Rabid dogs are the main transmitter of the illness in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. In the United States, where vaccination of pets has controlled the disease, the infection is uncommon, and when it does … Read more

What should I do if I think that I can get hepatitis from my garbage can?

what should i do if i think that i can get hepatitis from my garbage can

Yes, this is an irrational thought, but there are things you can do to challenge it. First, look at this fear from a rational perspective: How many people do you know who have contracted hepatitis? Second, how many people have contracted any disease from a garbage can? Third, how many people have contracted hepatitis from … Read more

Can you be hospitalized for OCD?

can you be hospitalized for ocd

Yes, it is possible to be hospitalized for OCD. This can occur for several reasons. First, it may be a way to help stabilize someone whose rituals have become so problematic that all he or she does all day long is perform rituals. Often in these cases family members will bring someone in to a … Read more