Paregoric Elixirs: An Age-Old Remedy for Stomach Ailments Revisited

Paregoric elixirs have a rich historical background as traditional remedies for stomach ailments. In this article, we delve into the origins of paregoric elixirs, explore their modern applications and research findings, and examine the production and quality standards associated with these age-old remedies. Key Takeaways Paregoric elixirs have evolved over time with changes in ingredients … Read more

Bog Iron Extraction: A Historical Perspective

Bog iron extraction has a rich historical background that dates back to ancient times. This article explores the origins of bog iron extraction, technological advancements in the industry, and the environmental considerations associated with this process. Key Takeaways Bog iron extraction has played a significant role in local economies throughout history. Technological advancements have led … Read more

Security in Death: The History and Purpose of the Mortsafe

The Mortsafe, a historical security measure used to protect the deceased from grave robbers, has a fascinating history and purpose. This article explores the origin, design, and significance of Mortsafe, as well as its relevance in modern times. Additionally, it delves into the different types of Mortsafes and their materials, designs, and distribution across various … Read more

Secure the Dead: The Macabre World of Mortsafes in Victorian Cemeteries

Mortsafes, a grim yet fascinating aspect of Victorian history, were designed to protect the deceased from body snatchers. This article delves into the history, usage, and preservation of these unique structures in Victorian cemeteries. Key Takeaways Mortsafes were created to safeguard the graves of the deceased from grave robbers during the Victorian era. The design … Read more

Measuring History: The Legacy of Gunter’s Chain in Surveying

Gunter’s Chain, a historical unit of measurement used in surveying, has had a lasting impact on the field of land surveying. This article explores the origin, evolution, advantages, and limitations of Gunter’s Chain, as well as its legacy in modern surveying practices. Key Takeaways Gunter’s Chain played a significant role in the standardization of measurements … Read more

Which Explorers First Explored the Continents of the World?

which explorers first explored the continents of the world

Who was La Salle? Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, was born in 1643 and studied in Jesuit schools to become a priest. But lured by the opportunity of adventure and fortune in North America, the 22-year-old Frenchman traveled to Montreal, a city on the banks of the St. Lawrence River. He cleared a patch … Read more

What was the European Age of Exploration?

what was the european age of exploration

We know of many explorers and travelers from the Middle East, Africa, and China before the 1400s. But during the fifteenth century, advances in exploration occurred in a relative backwater of the world—western Europe. At the dawn of the 1400s, most Europeans tilled the soil and had little knowledge of the world beyond their villages. … Read more

Who Were the First Explorers of Ancient Civilization?

who were the first explorers of ancient civilization

Thousands of years ago, vast empires rose and fell in Egypt, Greece, Italy, the Middle East, northern Africa, China, and India. Bold explorers from these civilizations, such as Pytheas and Hanno, ventured into unknown lands and seas. Most of them searched for new trade routes or places to settle. Today, scholars have limited knowledge of … Read more

How much were mill workers paid for their work in the 1800s?

how much were mill workers paid for their work in the 1800s

The young mill workers were paid only a dollar or two, perhaps three, for a week’s work, and at least half of that went to pay for food and lodging in the mill company’s boardinghouses. In the mid-1830s, when the mill owners tried to cut the workers’ wages, the women protested. In Lowell, Massachusetts, they … Read more

Who were the most popular American actresses in the 1800s?

who were the most popular american actresses in the 1800s

One of the best-known American actresses in the mid-1800s was Charlotte Cushman, who starred not only in traditional female parts but also in such male roles as Romeo in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Laura Keene, who managed her own theater company, played many leading parts while directing the other actors. In 1865 she identified President … Read more

When did the first European women arrive in America and Where did they come from?

when did the first european women arrive in america and where did they come from

The first European woman in America was Francesca Hinestrosa of Spain. She joined her husband on de Soto’s expedition from Florida through Georgia and the Carolinas and then west, across the Appalachians toward the Mississippi. She was killed in an attack by Chickasaw warriors in 1541. Later, in 1565, Spanish women helped settle Saint Augustine … Read more

What did King Louis XIV of France Eat and How did the Sun King Dine?

what did king louis xiv of france eat and how did the sun king dine

From the moment the Sun King arose from his sumptuous gold bed, aligned with the rising sun at the centerpiece of his beloved Versailles, the château was alive with activity. The life of every courtier, minister, lovely lady, doctor, and cook was finely tuned to the rituals of the King, his dressing, shaving, dining, meetings, … Read more

Where did Andy Garcia come from and Is Andy Garcia Italian?

where did andy garcia come from and is andy garcia italian

Andy Garcia is not Italian, but the actor played Italians in two of his biggest film roles: a rookie G-man in The Untouchables (1987) and the heir to a Mafia family in The Godfather, Part III (1990). Garcia is a Cuban American. Born in Havana in 1956, he fled with his family to Miami after … Read more

What is a guayabera shirt and Where do guayaberas come from?

what is a guayabera shirt and where do guayaberas come from

Those shirts with the two stripes down the front that you often see in Florida are called guayabera shirts. They are popular in warm parts of Latin America and among many Hispanic American men, especially in Florida. They have pleated stripes down the front, four pockets, and side vents. No need to tuck them in; … Read more

Who founded Goya Foods and Where did Goya beans come from?

who founded goya foods and where did goya beans come from scaled

Based in Secaucus, New Jersey, Goya Foods specializes in foods for the U.S. Latino population. It was founded in 1936 by Prudencio Unanue, a Spanish businessman who moved to Puerto Rico before settling in New York. Still headed by a Unanue family member, Goya is now one of the five hundred largest private companies, according … Read more

Which major Spanish language TV networks in the United States are owned by Hispanic Americans?

which major spanish language tv networks in the united states are owned by hispanic americans

Univision and Telemundo are both owned by Anglo companies. The cable network Galavision is Mexican-owned. Management and performing talent tend to be white Cubans and South Americans. Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Hispanics of mixed race are severely underrepresented. Many newspapers, magazines, radio stations, and web sites are devoted to Latinos. Some are in Spanish, some … Read more

Why do so many people want to crack down on illegal immigrants in the United States?

why do so many people want to crack down on illegal immigrants in the united states scaled

Critics of undocumented immigrants say they take jobs from “real” Americans and burden the welfare system. But supporters say undocumented immigrants take menial, low-paying jobs that Americans would be unlikely to take. Supporters also say that undocumented immigrants are less likely than American citizens to apply for welfare benefits. Why would someone who fears capture … Read more

When did Antonio Banderas get his first Hollywood Breakthrough?

when did antonio banderas get his first hollywood breakthrough

Americans first started noticing Antonio Banderas in a 1988 film called Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown. This dark comedy from Spain played to great acclaim in the United States. Its director, Pedro Almodovar, became internationally known, as did Banderas, a star of this and other AlmodOvar films. The actor has since come … Read more

Why are Hispanic Americans one big happy family?

why are hispanic americans one big happy family

Hispanic immigrants to the United States often think of themselves first as nationals of a particular country, Mexico, Cuba, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador. Their U.S. born children or grandchildren may become so assimilated to Anglo culture that they think of themselves as Americans rather than Hispanic Americans. There is considerable discord between Hispanic … Read more

How many Hispanic Americans marry outside their national group?

how many hispanic americans marry outside their national group

Hispanic Americans marry outside their national group often. In this, they show the willingness to mix that has always been part of Hispanic culture. The practice tends to break down walls between communities. When a Mexican American marries a Puerto Rican, the common bond between Hispanics is strengthened. When their child marries an Anglo, the … Read more

What are remesas and What does remesas mean in Spanish?

what are remesas and what does remesas mean in spanish

Remesas are “remittances”, money that immigrants to the United States send home to their families in Latin America. The immigrants save up the money from their jobs and send it home, often via one of several courier agencies that specialize in the task. For many Latin American countries, remesas are an important source of foreign … Read more

Who was the first Latino to break into major league baseball?

who was the first latino to break into major league baseball

The first Latino to break into major league baseball was Esteban Bellan in 1871. But Hispanics did not become a major force in baseball until after 1947, when Jackie Robinson made it possible for players to be nonwhite. Since then, people from many parts of Latin America have come to make up a large percentage … Read more

What nationality is Julio Iglesias and Where did he come from?

what nationality is julio iglesias and where did he come from

The singer Julio Iglesias, born in 1943, is from Spain, but he is highly popular throughout Latin America and among Hispanic Americans. His early albums were all in Spanish, but he has recorded songs in other languages as well, including English and French. That practice has made him an international star, appreciated by people of … Read more

What Spanish speaking country does the samba come from?

what spanish speaking country does the samba come from

The samba did not come from any Spanish speaking country. The dance called the samba comes from Portuguese-speaking Brazil, where it evolved as a folk dance among people of African descent. It became a dance for urban Brazilian couples in the late nineteenth century, and became internationally popular in the 1920s and 1930s. It was … Read more

What are Pseudo Hispanics and Where do Pseudo Hispanics come from?

what are pseudo hispanics and where do pseudo hispanics come from

Hollywood has a long tradition of using non-Hispanics to play Hispanic roles. Silent-screen “Latin” lover Rudolph Valentino was Italian. Tyrone Power practically made a living playing suave Spaniards in films such as The Mark of Zorro (1940). Blond, blue-eyed Charlton Heston played a Mexican detective in Touch of Evil (1958). Things hadn’t changed that much … Read more

How many American businesses are owned by Hispanic Americans?

how many american businesses are owned by hispanic americans scaled

Belying the common image of the Hispanic American as a hired hand in someone’s factory or field, Latinos are more likely than ever to run their own companies. As of 1992, Hispanic Americans owned 862,605 businesses-5 percent of all the businesses in the country. California, Texas, and Florida have especially high numbers of Hispanic-owned business. … Read more

What kind of a background did Rosie Perez come from?

what kind of a background did rosie perez come from

The Puerto Rican actress Rosie Perez, born circa 1968, grew up in troubled circumstances in Brooklyn. At twelve, she was put in a group home for cutting a woman’s neck. Moving to Los Angeles, she found a constructive way to channel her frenetic energy: as a star of such movies as Do the Right Thing … Read more

What kind of game is futbol?

what kind of game is futbol

Futbol is the Latin American name for soccer, one of the region’s favorite sports. Another favorite pastime is beisbol, or baseball. American football has not really caught on in Latin America. But tennis, golf, and boxing have long been crowd-pleasers. Soccer, known as football outside North America, has become increasingly popular in the United States, … Read more

Who was Rita Hayworth and Where did Rita Hayworth come from?

who was rita hayworth and where did rita hayworth come from

Latino performers were rare in the 1930s and 1940s, the Golden Era of Hollywood. Mexican-born Lupe Velez was popular for her “Mexican Spitfire” comedies. Dominican American Maria Montez appeared in adventure films. Mexican American Anthony Quinn played minor villains until the 1950s, when he became a full-fledged star. The greatest exception was the sex goddess … Read more

What Nobel Prize did biologist Severo Ochoa win in 1959?

what nobel prize did biologist severo ochoa win in 1959

Born in 1905, the Spanish-born molecular biologist fled war in Europe to come to the United States in 1941. For thirty-two years, beginning in 1942, he taught at New York University. One of his interests was RNA (ribonucleic acid), a compound found in living cells that is important in cell reproduction. Ochoa isolated an enzyme … Read more

Who was Truman Capote and Where did Truman Capote come from?

who was truman capote and where did truman capote come from scaled

The last name of American writer Truman Capote (1924-1984) is Spanish. Of Spanish American descent, he was born in New Orleans, Louisiana. He became well known for his novella Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1958) and his “nonfiction novel” In Cold Blood (1966), an account of the real-life mass murder of a rural Kansas family. Celebrated in … Read more

What was the Abraham Lincoln Battalion and Where did the Lincoln Brigade come from?

what was the abraham lincoln battalion and where did the lincoln brigade come from scaled

The Abraham Lincoln Battalion was a battalion of about 2,800 volunteers from the United States who traveled to Spain to fight for the Republican cause in the Spanish civil war (1936-1939). With similar volunteer units from more than fifty other countries, it was part of the International Brigades. The Abraham Lincoln Battalion, also known as … Read more

Are Hispanic Americans Democrats or Republicans?

are hispanic americans democrats or republicans scaled

Sixty-five percent of Hispanic Americans call themselves Democrats, and most elected Latinos in Congress are Democrats. But Democratic candidates should not assume that Latinos vote strictly by party. Traditional Democratic issues, civil rights, immigrants’ rights, social programs to aid the poor, are important to Latinos. But so are such Republican watchwords as law and order, … Read more

Where do most Basque Americans live?

where do most basque americans live

Basque Americans settled mainly in Nevada, Idaho, and Oregon, along with some other parts of the West, including California and Wyoming. They first came to the United States in the 1800s. Skilled as shepherds, Basque immigrants found work in that business and came to dominate the sheepherding industry of the West. Most were poor when … Read more

Who are the Basques and Where do the Basques come from?

who are the basques and where do the basques come from

Basques are a people with an unusual distinction: they are Europe’s oldest known ethnic group. To look at them, you might think they are Spanish, but their homeland, known as the Basque country, straddles both southwest France and northern Spain. Their native language is not Spanish but Basque, which has no known ties to any … Read more

How many Hispanics are in public office in the United States?

how many hispanics are in public office in the united states

There are more than five thousand Hispanic elected officials in the United States, including about twenty members of the U.S. House of Representatives. President Bill Clinton’s first-term cabinet included two Hispanics: Henry Cisneros, secretary of housing and urban development, and Federico Pena, secretary of transportation. Of the two, only Pena stayed on in Clinton’s second … Read more

What was the fighting about in the Spanish civil war and How did it start?

what was the fighting about in the spanish civil war and how did it start

The Spanish civil war started in 1936 when General Francisco Franco (1892-1975) led a revolt against the Spanish Republic. Franco was a fascist, which meant he believed in a dictatorial, militaristic form of government. Germany and Italy, both fascist states at the time, sent arms and advisers to support Franco’s group, known as the Nationalists, … Read more

How many Hispanic Americans are poor and live below the poverty level?

how many hispanic americans are poor and live below the poverty level scaled

As of 1994, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, 30.7 percent, nearly a third, of Hispanic Americans lived below the poverty level. That means that a family of four would make under $15,141 per year. Poverty is more widespread among Hispanic Americans than among white Americans. The proportion of white Americans living under the poverty … Read more

Why are so many Hispanic Americans poor?

why are so many hispanic americans poor scaled

Many Hispanic Americans are recent immigrants from impoverished countries. Many can only find work in unskilled jobs. With effort and education, they or their children may yet achieve middle-class prosperity. Others have been here a long time but suffer from generations of discrimination, notably the Chicanos of the West and Southwest. With poverty come such … Read more

Why do advocates for immigrants prefer the term “undocumented worker” rather than “illegal alien”?

why do advocates for immigrants prefer the term undocumented worker rather than illegal alien

The term “illegal alien” is loaded with a presumption of criminal guilt. In contrast, “undocumented worker” is a neutral description of the situation of people who are in the United States without papers proving their legal status. If an immigration court were to hear their cases, it might conceivably uphold their right to be here. … Read more

What is Spanglish and Where did Spanglish come from?

what is spanglish and where did spanglish come from scaled

Spanglish is the informal name for a brand of Spanish peppered with borrowed words or phrases from English. Even in Latin America, some Hispanics routinely use words like lonche (for “lunch”) or jonron (for “home run”) because the word pleases the ear or best expresses a certain shade of meaning. Puerto Ricans like to throw … Read more

How many Spanish dialects are there and Do all Hispanic Americans speak Spanish the same way?

how many spanish dialects are there and do all hispanic americans speak spanish the same way

There are many variations in Spanish dialect. In New Mexico, a relatively pure form of sixteenth and seventeenth-century Spanish has been preserved from the days before the region was conquered by the United States. Many Chicanos of Texas and California speak Pachuco, a slang that includes Mexican expressions and English-derived terms. The fast-paced Cuban dialect … Read more

What is the Hispanic American stand on bilingual education?

what is the hispanic american stand on bilingual education

There is no single stand on bilingual education for most Hispanic Americans. Many agree that children who have just immigrated should be allowed to pursue some studies in Spanish until English mastery is achieved. Children who speak no English cannot reasonably be expected to just pick it up without having their grades suffer. On the … Read more

What stereotypes do some Hispanic Americans have about Anglos?

what stereotypes do some hispanic americans have about anglos

Anglo prejudice against Hispanic Americans is matched only by Hispanic American prejudice against Anglos. Many Latinos think of Anglos as cold, materialistic, and money-grubbing. By contrast, Latinos see themselves as warm, family-oriented, community-minded people. One Colombian said of Anglos: “They don’t care for their fellow man, be it their father, son, or neighbor. They only … Read more

What is the origin of the term “gringo” and What does it mean?

what is the origin of the term gringo and what does it mean

Many possible origins have been suggested for the term gringo, a disparaging name used by Latinos to refer to Anglos. Some people think it originated in the phrase Mexicans used to yell to green-coated U.S. troops during the Mexican War: “Green, go.” But the phrase is found all over Latin America, not just in Mexico. … Read more

Why don’t you see the Chiquita Banana girl on TV much anymore?

why dont you see the chiquita banana girl on tv much anymore

For the same reason you don’t see the Frito Bandido anymore. These character trademarks were staples of TV commercials of the 1960s. They were popular with Anglo American audiences but offended many Hispanic Americans. The Fritos corn chip bandit suggested a sterotype of Mexicans as sleazy criminals. The Chiquita Banana girl made Latinos seem silly … Read more

How easy is it to immigrate legally to the United States?

how easy is it to immigrate legally to the united states

Under U.S. immigration laws enacted in 1965 and afterward, no more than 270,000 visas permitting immigration can be issued in any given year. No more than 20,000 visas can be issued to any single country per year. Some categories are exempt from this limitation, such as children of U.S. citizens and political refugees. Even so, … Read more

How do Latina women feel about machismo?

how do latina women feel about machismo scaled

For Latin American women, the ideology of machismo has often meant oppression and second-class status. Many accept the authority of men as an inescapable part of life, whether it is legitimate or not. Latinas in the United States have greater freedom than in their home countries to earn a living and be respected as equals … Read more

What is the racial makeup of Hispanics in South America?

what is the racial makeup of hispanics in south america

The racial makeup of South America’s Hispanics varies greatly. Many are mestizos, a mix of European and Native American, but there are also mulattoes, blacks, pure whites, and pure Native Americans. In the highlands of Andean nations live many Native Americans, representing 45 percent of Peru’s population and 55 percent of Bolivia’s. In Argentina and … Read more

Why do some South Americans travel illegally to the United States?

why do some south americans travel illegally to the united states

South Americans use the same methods as other undocumented immigrants from Latin America. Some first travel to Mexico and are smuggled into the United States over the border. Others visit the United States on tourist visas, then quietly stay after the visas expire. In the heavily Hispanic section of New York City called Jackson Heights, … Read more

Why do South Americans emigrate to the United States instead of other South American countries?

why do south americans emigrate to the united states instead of other south american countries

Many South Americans seeking a better life go to other countries on the continent. Colombians, for example, often move to neighboring Venezuela, Ecuador, or Panama. Peruvians may emigrate to Chile, Paraguay, or Argentina. Some feel they will have an easier time in a foreign country that shares their language and some common elements of Latino … Read more

Why are many South American immigrants poor and uneducated?

why are many south american immigrants poor and uneducated

On the whole, South American immigrants to the United States tend to be better educated and more prosperous than other Hispanic newcomers. They tend to be middle-class people with technical skills and a strong belief in education. Many come from cities rather than rural areas. One reason: travel to the United States is expensive. It … Read more

Why do many Hispanics have two last names?

why do many hispanics have two last names

In Spain and Latin America, a child is given both its father’s last name and its mother’s maiden name. For example, Anita Castillo Sanchez would be the daughter of a father named Castillo and a mother whose maiden name was Sanchez. The mother is thereby honored along with the father, though her name will drop … Read more

How has the political situation in South America improved in recent years?

how has the political situation in south america improved in recent years

During the 1980s and 1990s, the military dictatorships and juntas fell by the wayside. For the moment, democratically elected governments prevail across the continent. But in every country there is always the danger of a return to military rule. Problems continue. In the 1980s and ’90s, both Peru and Colombia fought wars against guerrilla armies. … Read more

What kind of political trouble did South America have since achieving independence?

what kind of political trouble did south america have since achieving independence scaled

Political instability has plagued the continent throughout its history. Ever since achieving independence, the nations of South America have been famous for their frequent revolutions and coups. Constitutions and elected presidents give way to dictators and juntas and new constitutions and presidents. The 1960s and 1970s were a particularly stormy time. The military took power … Read more

How many South Americans have immigrated to the United States?

how many south americans have immigrated to the united states

According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1.5 million South Americans have come to the United States from 1820 to 1995. Most of them have come from South America’s Hispanic nations. Ninety-one percent have come just since 1950, and 85 percent since 1960. In the 1980s alone, 456,000 South Americans were admitted to the United … Read more

What South American country sends the most immigrants to the United States?

what south american country sends the most immigrants to the united states

As of 1990, the South American country that sends the most immigrants to the United States was Colombia. In that year, the U.S. Census Bureau counted 286,000 Colombian-born Americans. Most were recent immigrants: their numbers nearly doubled since 1980, when the total was 144,000. Ecuador and Peru also send large numbers of immigrants. Like Colombia, … Read more

Do most immigrants still come to the United States through Ellis Island?

do most immigrants still come to the united states through ellis island

The immigrant receiving station Ellis Island near Manhattan opened in 1892 and closed in 1954. During that time, about 20 million immigrants passed through its gates, including those from Spain. Like all immigrants, those from Spain had to pass medical tests and convince examiners they could support themselves. If they failed to do so, they … Read more

When was the largest period of Spanish immigration to the United States?

when was the largest period of spanish immigration to the united states

The largest period of Spanish immigration was between 1901 and 1931, when 100,000 Spanish immigrants came to the United States. Steamship travel, widely available in this period, made the trip faster and more comfortable than the sailing ships of the nineteenth century. Most of those who came were farmers or tradespeople tired of poverty and … Read more

Which South American writers have won the Nobel Prize in literature?

which south american writers have won the nobel prize in literature

The first South American writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature was Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral, born Lucila Godoy Alcayaga (1889-1957). She won the 1945 Nobel Prize in Literature for her passionate, lyrical poetry. Though born in Chile, she was a teacher and diplomat who spent much of her life abroad, in Mexico, Europe, … Read more

How many Colombians are drug dealers?

how many colombians are drug dealers

Most Colombians are not drug dealers, but this stereotype haunts Colombians. Colombia is the world’s foremost exporter of cocaine. Colombian drug cartels (associations), notably those in Medellin and Cali, have associates and hirelings in many countries, including the United States. The United States has accused Colombian president Ernesto Samper, elected in 1994, of soliciting and … Read more

Who are the Costeños and Where did the Costeño people come from?

who are the costenos and where did the costeno people come from

Costeños are people from northern coastal Colombia who are of mixed African, Spanish, and Native American descent. At home, they live in cities such as Cartagena. In the United States, many live in New York and Chicago. Both in the United States and Colombia, Costeños tend to keep apart from pure white Colombians, who have … Read more

How were Spanish immigrants welcome in the United States in the early 1900s?

how were spanish immigrants welcome in the united states in the early 1900s

Spanish newcomers were treated with a similar level of prejudice as other immigrants from southern Europe, such as Italians. Many in America preferred immigrants who had lighter skins and came from northern climates, like England and Scandinavia. This prejudice was embodied in a quota system first enacted in 1921 and later became still more restrictive. … Read more

Which country in South America has the Biggest population of people?

which country in south america has the biggest population of people

In terms of population, all of South America’s Hispanic countries are dwarfed by Brazil, with its 163 million people. In fact, most of the countries in this list have fewer people than California, with its 32 million residents. In descending order of population, the countries are: Colombia: 37 million Argentina: 35 million Peru: 25 million … Read more