In the Middle Ages, most common people didn’t have a last name.
Many of our familiar surnames came from the necessity to distinguish between two people with the same first name by adding their occupation, location, or a physical characteristic.
William the tanner and William the blacksmith became William Tanner and William Smith.
Poor country people who worked the land took the name of their land lord, so a regal surname usually doesn’t mean regal ancestry.
Other occupational last names:
Taylor — makes or repairs clothing
Carter — makes or repairs carts
Miller — ground flour from grain
Wainwright — wagon builder
Bishop — worked with a bishop
Last names with geographic origins:
Atwood — one who lives near the forest
Eastman — one who is from east of here
Westwood — one who is from the western forest
Dunlop — from the muddy hill
Churchill — lives near a church on a hill