Where does the word “Artesian” come from and What does Artesian mean?

Centuries ago, some authorities place the date definitely as the year 1126, and others merely vaguely as recent as “about 1750”, an unknown genius bored a well in the region of France now known as Artois.

By accident or design he hit upon a geological formation where a tilted porous stratum lay between two tilted impervious strata, and, in consequence, water was forced by natural pressure above the surface of the boring.

But anything or anyone native to the province of Artois is, from its ancient name, Artesien, in French; transformed in English to artesian.