The term weather usually refers to what is happening in the atmosphere at a specific location on a day to day basis.
Climate refers to weather conditions that tend to occur in an area over a long period of time.
Climates in the United States vary widely.
In fact, they include five of the six world climate groups:
tropical (Hawaii and the southernmost part of Florida); mild (much of the South, the southern Midwest, and the Mid-Atlantic); continental (Alaska, the northern Midwest, and the Northeast); dry (the Southwest and much of the West); and high elevations (much of the area of the Rocky Mountains).
The only climate category not experienced in the United States is polar.