The Communist party was one political organization that made a special effort to attract African Americans, especially those in the inner cities.
Based on a political system begun in Russia, Communism is a system in which the main resources and means of production are owned by the state instead of by individuals.
The party staged marches, organized boycotts of businesses that did not hire blacks, and helped people that had been evicted from their homes. Some famous members of the Communist party were the actor Paul Robeson and the novelist Richard Wright.
In 1932, 1936, and 1940 the party even ran a black candidate, James Ford, for vice president. But the party failed to attract a big enough following among African Americans.
Blacks also became involved in labor unions, such as the all-black Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.