How do scientists know there will be another Ice Age in 2000 years?

how do scientists know there will be another ice age in 2000 years

No one knows for certain when the next ice age will begin, but geological evidence indicates that it could start within two thousand years. During the past 2 million years, ice ages have been coming and going according to a fairly regular schedule. They seem to last about 100,000 years or so, and are usually … Read more

How do lawyers get paid when a company files for bankruptcy?

how do lawyers get paid when a company files for bankruptcy

Under the Federal bankruptcy code, administrative costs of running a bankruptcy are given priority over debt owed to creditors. Therefore, both the counsel for the debtors and the official committees representing the creditors are ensured payment because technically they constitute an administrative expense of running the case. A lawyer cannot represent a bankrupt entity. So, … Read more

How do crocodiles clean their teeth and Do crocodiles grow new teeth?

how do crocodiles clean their teeth and do crocodiles grow new teeth

The Egyptian Plover (Pluvianus aegyptius) has long been called the crocodile bird for its symbiotic relationship to this most ferocious of reptiles. Sitting coolly in the gaping mouth of a basking crocodile, the bird picks leeches, flukes and tsetse flies from the animal’s gums to eat. In nearly all other circumstances the crocodile is an … Read more

How do outdoor vending machines prevent Coke from freezing in cold climates?

how do outdoor vending machines prevent coke from freezing in cold climates

In very cold climates, the easiest way to keep Coca-Cola from freezing is to store it inside, in a heated shop or home. Exposed to the elements for an extended time, Coke would freeze, causing an indefinite postponement of the pause that refreshes. Actually, before the soda could freeze, the can itself would burst. The … Read more

How is radioactive nuclear waste disposed of and stored safely underground?

how is radioactive nuclear waste disposed of and stored safely underground

The answer is, not very well. Ridding the earth of nuclear waste that continues to emit radioactivity is a formidable, if not impossible, task, and experts disagree over how it should be packaged and where it should be put. There are two general types of nuclear waste, low-level and high-level. Low-level waste is composed mainly … Read more

How does Bleach get clothes white and How does Clorox work?

how does bleach get clothes white and how does clorox work scaled

Most laundry bleaches, including the household wizard Clorox bleach, are oxidizing agents. In the washing machine they release free-roving molecules of sodium hypochlorite or peroxide. The color of a stain or spot is made up of a group of atoms and molecules linked together by a pattern of double and single bonds. The oxidizing agent … Read more

Where does Wind Shear come from and How do pilots and airports detect wind shear?

where does wind shear come from and how do pilots and airports detect wind shear

Unless you spend a lot of time flying airplanes, you probably haven’t given a great deal of thought to the subject of wind shear. Wind shear is the phenomenon of radically differing wind velocity and direction at slightly different altitudes. The occurrence of an adjoining northerly twelve-knot wind, say, and a southerly twenty-knot wind would … Read more

Why does the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture get mentioned on cereal boxes?

why does the pennsylvania department of agriculture get mentioned on cereal boxes scaled

If you’ve ever found yourself alone at the breakfast table without a newspaper, you’ve probably resorted to reading the cereal box for diversion. There, along the side of the box, buried deep within the fine print, lies the cryptic notation, “Reg. Penna. Dept. of Agri.” What, you may have wondered, does the Pennsylvania Department of … Read more

How does the USDA measure and calculate the calories in food?

how does the usda measure and calculate the calories in food scaled

Energy is trapped in the molecular bonds inside food, and used by the body for all sorts of physical activities: shopping, studying, jogging, reading this book. A calorie is a way to measure that energy, both as it is supplied, and as it is burned. Energy is discussed in terms of heat. One calorie, the … Read more

How do scientists measure how long a second is using vibrating atoms?

how do scientists measure how long a second is using vibrating atoms

The old way, and the way most of us still use to measure a second, is derived from the time it takes for a complete day to pass. For centuries we have split a day into twenty-four hours, an hour into sixty minutes and a minute into sixty seconds. But though the Earth’s movements from … Read more

How do Skywriting Pilots write words across the sky in airplane exhaust smoke?

how do skywriting pilots write words across the sky in airplane exhaust smoke

When we think of skywriting, most of us picture a small airplane looping-the-loop to scrawl advertising slogans or “I love you’s” with a vanishing vapor trail. But such laborious acrobatics are almost a thing of the past. Since the wind can wipe out a letter even before the daring aviator finishes it, an imaginative skywriter … Read more

Who invented High Definition Television and Where did HDTV come from?

who invented high definition television and where did hdtv come from

High-definition television, the experts tell us, will deliver pictures up to five times sharper than the current standard, with a larger field of vision and with sound comparable to that produced by a compact disk. The new system, which should be commercially available by the mid-1990s, will mark the first real change in television since … Read more

How does the SEC know when someone is doing inside stock trading?

how does the sec know when someone is doing inside stock trading

Inside trading, the illicit profiteering by brokers on stock sales based on advance information about companies, is illegal because it gives the guilty trader an unfair advantage over his competitors; it can also lead to a fiscally damaging betrayal of trust. A lawyer, for instance, retained by Huge Company to assist in its secret buyout … Read more

How do editors make fake photos on Magazine Covers with computers?

how do editors make fake photos on magazine covers with computers

IF you have ever read Spy magazine you are probably familiar with doctored magazine cover photos. The satiric New York monthly once ran, for instance, a cover that included a picture of Henry Kissinger wantonly dancing the hula. It was not really a picture of Dr. Kissinger. Rather, it was a picture of Dr. Kissinger’s … Read more

How do scientists measure the thickness of the ozone layer in the atmosphere?

how do scientists measure the thickness of the ozone layer in the atmosphere

Concern about the depletion of atmospheric ozone really took off in the mid-eighties when scientists of the British Antarctic Survey first detected an ozone “hole” over their research station on Halley Bay. They found that the springtime quantity of ozone over Antarctica had decreased by more than 40 percent between 1977 and 1984. The “hole,” … Read more

How Do Animal Trainers Teach a Bear How To Ride a Bicycle or Tricycle?

how do animal trainers teach a bear how to ride a bicycle or tricycle

Bear cubs and humans cubs are built in kind of the same way: they’re sturdy, fairly well balanced, and capable of walking upright. In addition, they both put their heels down first when they walk. So for trainers at the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, where bears have been performing since the turn … Read more

How do Editors decide what goes on the cover of People Magazine?

how do editors decide what goes on the cover of people magazine

There’s an old formula at People magazine called the Law of Covers: “Young is better than old,” it goes. “Pretty is better than ugly. Rich is better than poor. TV is better than music. Music is better than movies. Movies is better than sports. And anything is better than politics.” The Law was conceived by … Read more

Who invented Stainproof Carpets and How does du Pont make Stainproof Carpets?

who invented stainproof carpets and how does du pont make stainproof carpets scaled

E. I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company, headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware, was among the first companies to come up with a new technology for making stain-repellent carpets. In the early eighties one of du Pont’s research chemists, Armand Zinnato, was developing a nylon fiber that could be dyed at room temperature. He worried that … Read more

When was the Condom invented and How do they make sure Condoms won’t break?

when was the condom invented and how do they make sure condoms wont break

A romantic interlude isn’t the only time people worry about condoms breaking. Manufacturers worry about it all the time. So they put the condoms through elaborate tests to make sure they’re leakproof and strong. The key ingredient in the success of the multimillion-dollar modern condom industry, Americans buy some 420 million of them a year, … Read more

Who invented Neapolitan Ice Cream and How is Neapolitan Ice Cream made?

who invented neapolitan ice cream and how is neapolitan ice cream made

Despite what certain nostalgia-happy entrepreneurs would have you believe, ice cream production is a big, industrial business. The United States produces more than 900 million gallons of ice cream every year. During the first half of this century ice cream tycoons opened vast plants where noisy stainless steel machines replaced the old hand-cranked wooden ice … Read more

How is Decaffeinated Coffee made and How do they get the Caffeine out of Coffee?

how is decaffeinated coffee made and how do they get the caffeine out of coffee

The bitter, white substance caffeine makes up only about one percent of the composition of coffee beans. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires 97 percent of that tiny amount to be removed before the label may say “decaffeinated,” and some manufacturers do even better than that. The difficult part of the decaffeination process, as … Read more

Who invented Scratch and Sniff ads and How do they put the smell into scratch and sniff advertising?

who invented scratch and sniff ads and how do they put the smell into scratch and sniff advertising

In yet another clever ploy to attract customers, Madison Avenue invented the scratch-and-sniff ad. Used mostly by the cosmetics industry to sell perfumes and colognes, the ads are inserted into magazines, so you can get an idea of what the product smells like before buying it. Scratch-and-sniff strips are composed of globules of oil-based scent … Read more

How does Sunscreen block out Ultraviolet Rays from the sun?

how does sunscreen block out ultraviolet rays from the sun

Sunscreens are classified as drugs and as such are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Manufacturers use FDA-approved chemicals, oxybenzone, padimate-O, octylpmethoxy-cinnamate, and others, in different amounts and combinations, each arriving at its own unique and well-guarded formula. What these chemicals do is absorb or reflect radiation in the ultraviolet spectrum; older products … Read more

How do Astronomers find a black hole if black holes are invisible?

how do astronomers find a black hole if black holes are invisible

Astronomers don’t see black holes, actually. A black hole is created by the collapse of an aged and massive star, and its gravitational force is so strong that it draws in even the light around it that would make it visible. And even if black holes were visible, their small size would still make them … Read more

How does the Admissions Committee determine who gets into Harvard University?

how does the admissions committee determine who gets into harvard university

More than 14,000 hopeful students apply for admission to Harvard each year, competing to fill out a freshman class of about 1,600. In an average year, roughly 15 percent of the applicants will be accepted; about 75 percent of successful applicants matriculate. The basic admissions requirements include graduation from secondary school, and completion of the … Read more

How Do Emotions Affect the Color of a Chameleon?

how do emotions affect the color of a chameleon scaled

Their lips can turn yellow. Their strange little bodies fade from shoe-leather brown to grass green. The acclaimed herpetologist Angus Bellairs even reported in his 1970 two-volume work, The Life of Reptiles, that “if an object of distinctive shape is held against the flank of a Chameleon for a couple of minutes, its outline will … Read more

Where do Hershey’s Kisses come from and How are Hershey’s Chocolate Kisses made?

where do hersheys kisses come from and how are hersheys chocolate kisses made

When Hershey’s Chocolate Kisses were introduced in 1907, just four years after Milton S. Hershey built his first chocolate factory, the bite-size candies were wrapped individually by hand. In 1921 the chocolate makers added the Kiss’s identification plume, the little paper streamer printed “Hershey’s Kisses” that sprouts from the top of the foil wrapping. The … Read more

How do programmers teach a computer to recognize your voice?

how do programmers teach a computer to recognize your voice

It won’t be long before you can carry on lengthy conversations with a computer, schedule business appointments by negotiating with a machine rather than a secretary, even instruct your VCR by voice when to record a certain show. IBM already has a computer in the works that can recognize twenty thousand words. How does it … Read more

How do Structural Ironworkers Walk on Unprotected Beams 500 feet in the Air?

how do structural ironworkers walk on unprotected beams 500 feet in the air

First, what gets them up there at all? “Youth is number one,” says John Kelly, coordinator of the Joint Apprenticeship and Trainee Committee of Ironworkers Locals 40 and 361 in New York. “Adventure is number two. And it used to be a hand-me-down, father-to-son business. Or you’d be hanging around on the street like a … Read more

How does the United Nations interview and hire simultaneous interpreters for translations?

how does the united nations interview and hire simultaneous interpreters for translations

The United Nations employs 142 simultaneous interpreters, whose job it is to orally translate speeches at the very moment they are being delivered. A simultaneous interpreter listens to words spoken in one language and instantly relates in another language what is being said. Unlike translating a written document from one language to another, simultaneous interpretation … Read more

Where does Crack Cocaine come from and How do Drug Lords make crack?

where does crack cocaine come from and how do drug lords make crack

To make crack, which is cocaine in a purified, hardened form, it is first necessary to make cocaine. The process begins in the Andes of South America, with the native coca shrub. Incidentally, coca is a different plant entirely from the cacao tree, from which we get cocoa. Coca leaves contain minute amounts of the … Read more

How do Beekeepers extract Honey out of a Honeycomb and Where does Honey come from?

how do beekeepers extract honey out of a honeycomb and where does honey come from

No, not by machine alone. The beekeeper himself barehanded shoos away the swarming bees to carry off the honey-laden combs. A man-made beehive, which will house a colony of fifteen thousand to sixty thousand bees, is constructed of stacks of wooden boxes, measuring twenty inches by sixteen and one quarter inches each. The uppermost boxes, … Read more

How do Librarians decide where to put a new book in the Library of Congress?

how do librarians decide where to put a new book in the library of congress

In 1814 Thomas Jefferson, retired from government service and living at Monticello, donated his personal library to Congress, writing, “There is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer.” The government took Jefferson at his word, and the Library of Congress has since become the world’s most … Read more

How do editors decide whose obituary gets published in The New York Times?

how do editors decide whose obituary gets published in the new york times

“All the news that’s fit to print,” boasts the motto of the venerable New York paper, and the editors there apply the sentiment not only to foreign and domestic bureau reports but also to death notices. An obituary in the Times is the ultimate tribute: it signifies that during his life the deceased made it … Read more

How does the Continental Baking Company make Hostess Twinkles stay fresh for years?

how does the continental baking company make hostess twinkles stay fresh for years scaled

Perhaps you’ve heard, health nuts remark that Twinkies, the ultimate junk food, are so loaded with chemicals they can sit on the shelf for twenty years and the consumer wouldn’t know the difference. Not so. “That’s a popular misconception we’re not too happy about,” says Patrick Farrell of Continental Baking Company, producers of the familiar … Read more

How do Dairy Producers make long life ultra-high-temperature milk?

how do dairy producers make long life ultra high temperature milk scaled

Most of us wouldn’t consider drinking milk that has sat on the supermarket shelf unrefrigerated for some three months. Then again, many people, especially those without small children, have never heard of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk. Farm Best milk, made by Dairymen in Savannah, Georgia, is one of a number of long-shelf-life milks now available. You’ll … Read more

How does the Pulitzer Prize Board pick Pulitzer Prize winners every year?

how does the pulitzer prize board pick pulitzer prize winners every year

Pulitzer prizes are awarded annually for distinguished work in twenty-two categories of journalism, arts and letters, and music. The fourteen prizes in journalism are meritorious public service, spot news reporting, beat reporting, national reporting, international reporting, investigative reporting, explanatory journalism, editorials, editorial cartoons, spot news photography, feature photography, commentary, criticism, and feature writing. The six … Read more

How does the Census Bureau measure the unemployment rate in the United States?

how does the census bureau measure the unemployment rate in the united states

Every month, the Census Bureau surveys 59,500 American households, asking members about their current work habits. Once the data is in, the census takers ship it over to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, where analysts weigh the figures to project the national rate of unemployment. To arrive at an unemployment figure, labor statisticians first determine … Read more

How does the Federal Government decide who or what gets honored on U.S. postage stamps?

how does the federal government decide who or what gets honored on u s postage stamps

Making stamps is a function of the federal government, and as is the case with most governmental projects, a committee has been appointed to get the job done. The fourteen members of the Citizens’ Advisory Stamp Committee, representing expertise in American art, business, history, and technology, and sharing an interest in philately, are handpicked by … Read more

How do Emperor Penguins stay warm in Antarctica when it’s so cold?

how do emperor penguins stay warm in antarctica when its so cold

The emperor penguin, which happily swims and romps in killing temperatures of minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit, is the only bird that can, and often does, spend its entire life on coastal or shelf ice, without ever coming ashore. Basically, three mechanisms are at work in safeguarding the emperor penguin’s body heat: its feather construction, its … Read more

How do Chinese physicians treat drug addiction with Acupuncture Detoxification?

how do chinese physicians treat drug addiction with acupuncture detoxification

In treating drug addiction, acupuncture is used to suppress the addict’s physical craving for narcotics and also to combat such debilitating side effects of withdrawal as nausea and extreme anxiety. By easing an addict’s symptoms of addiction and withdrawal, acupuncture facilitates the patient’s ability to receive other therapies, including counseling. Acupuncture treatment is based on … Read more

How do toy manufacturers make glow in the dark toys like Frisbees and yo-yos?

how do toy manufacturers make glow in the dark toys like frisbees and yo yos

From dinosaurs to lego ghosts, from stickers to yo-yos, a battery of toys now add a cool greenish glow to their attraction. The key ingredient that causes the glow is a phosphor (from the Greek for “light-bearer”), which has the ability to phosphoresce: it glows when exposed to visible light energy, and continues glowing for … Read more

How do Dry Cleaners dry clean clothes without getting them wet?

how do dry cleaners dry clean clothes without getting them wet

The truth is dry cleaning is not entirely dry. Dry cleaners do apply liquids to silk dresses, it’s just that the stuff contains no water and furthermore dries quite rapidly. It doesn’t cause clothes to shrink or colors to run. Routine dry cleaning is done in large, closed machines using a volatile chemical called perchloroethylene … Read more

How do tightrope walkers stay on the wire without falling off?

how do tightrope walkers stay on the wire without falling off

There are no real tricks to staying on a tightrope. One does it the same way one gets to Carnegie Hall: practice, practice, practice. Angel Quiros, a high-wire artist for Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus has been walking the wire for sixteen years. One must be in good physical condition, he says, “but … Read more

When did Jimmy Hoffa disappear and How do they know Jimmy Hoffa is dead?

when did jimmy hoffa disappear and how do they know jimmy hoffa is dead

At about two in the afternoon on July 30, 1975, former head of the Teamsters Jimmy Hoffa left his suburban home in Bloomfield Hills, outside Detroit, and drove to a nearby restaurant called Machus Red Fox. Some forty-five minutes later, witnesses say, several gentlemen in a maroon Mercury sedan arrived at the restaurant, picked up … Read more

Where do old newspapers go and How do recycling facilities recycle newspapers?

where do old newspapers go and how do recycling facilities recycle newspapers

For years, mountains of old newsprint were blithely tossed out along with other household and commercial waste. Today, as we slowly realize our natural resources are less than infinite, we are recycling about a third of the country’s newspapers. In order to reuse paper, one must first return it to the consistency of virgin wood … Read more

Who invented Carbonated Water and How do they get the bubbles into Seltzer Water?

who invented carbonated water and how do they get the bubbles into seltzer water

An English chemist by the name of Joseph Priestley bears the distinction of having invented seltzer water, in itself a popular beverage and the precursor of the ubiquitous soft drink. One day in 1772, Priestley mixed up a solution of baking soda, vinegar, and water, a combination that produced carbon dioxide, which created a fizzing … Read more

How does the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences decide who gets nominated for Oscars?

how does the academy of motion picture arts and sciences decide who gets nominated for oscars scaled

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has 4,830 members, each with expertise in some branch of the film industry, who nominate their peers for the various Oscars. Cinematographers nominate cinematographers; directors nominate directors; actors nominate actors; and everyone nominates movies for the Best Picture Award. The nomination process begins at the end of … Read more

How do movie studios determine the profit of a Hollywood movie?

how do movie studios determine the profit of a hollywood movie

In the movie business, as in every other industry, profit equals gross revenue minus costs. For movies, the biggest money maker is box office ticket sales. Additional income is derived from video sales and rentals. Other movie markets include cable and free TV, airlines, and shiplines, but in general these ancillary outlets provide only a … Read more

How are rechargeable batteries made and What are batteries made of?

how are rechargeable batteries made and what are batteries made of

All batteries work by converting chemical energy into electric energy. The difference between primary, or non-rechargeable, and secondary, or rechargeable, batteries lies in the specific chemical reactions each battery type uses to produce an electron flow, which in batteries is electricity. In primary batteries the chemical reactions cannot be reversed, thus a primary battery can … Read more

How do editors choose cartoons for The New Yorker magazine?

how do editors choose cartoons for the new yorker magazine

Cosmopolitan cartoons have long been a trademark of The New Yorker. You can find the cartoonists’ names listed modestly at the end of the magazine’s table of contents under the heading “Drawings.” The term is a holdover from the late 1920s and ’30s, when New Yorker cartoons were sometimes written by one person and drawn … Read more

How is nonalcoholic beer made and How does vacuum distillation work?

how is nonalcoholic beer made and how does vacuum distillation work

Legally speaking, in the United States there is no such thing as nonalcoholic beer. According to government definition a nonalcoholic drink is a beverage that contains no alcohol of any sort. The law also maintains that a beverage containing less than 0.5 percent ethanol cannot be called beer. The end result is a semantic issue, … Read more

How do phone companies make telephones for the deaf and What does TDD stand for?

how do phone companies make telephones for the deaf and what does tdd stand for

A telecommunication device for the deaf, or TDD as they are commonly called, allows a conversation to be typed over the phone lines, permitting people with impaired hearing to read incoming messages. The devices, which resemble portable electric typewriters, are equipped with keyboards, light-emitting diode (LED) character displays that show the text electronically, and modems … Read more

How do doctors remove gallstones in the gallbladder without operating using Lithotripsy?

how do doctors remove gallstones in the gallbladder without operating using lithotripsy

Gallstones develop when bile in the gallbladder, a muscular little digestive organ tucked away behind the liver, becomes oversaturated with cholesterol. The gallbladder stores digestive bile from the liver, and too much cholesterol causes the bile to crystallize, a condition that leads to gallstones. Without treatment, gallstones can reach a size of two inches in … Read more

Where does Margarine come from and How do they make Margarine taste like butter?

where does margarine come from and how do they make margarine taste like butter

Everybody has a different interpretation of butter flavor,” says Dr. Peter Freund, manager of product applications at Chr. Hansen’s Laboratory, Inc., in Milwaukee. Your interpretation is influenced by the butter you were raised on, the type of dairy cows bred where you grew up, the fodder they ate, and even the amount of time butter … Read more

How do the Players Association and Major League Baseball find arbitrators for contract arbitrations?

how do the players association and major league baseball find arbitrators for contract arbitrations scaled

Like any other big business, professional baseball is divided between labor and management. Players are labor; they belong to the Major League Baseball Players Association, a trade union. Baseball team owners represent management. The Commissioner of Baseball oversees an organization called Major League Baseball, which acts as the governing body of the professional sport. Basically, … Read more

How do Editors write headlines for daily newspapers such as the New York Post?

how do editors write headlines for daily newspapers such as the new york post

Headlines sell the New York Post. A good one can boost sales by thirty thousand copies in a single day. At forty cents an issue, that’s $12,000 in additional revenue for Manhattan’s highest street-sale-circulation tabloid. Even more, a well-received “wood”, an idiom dating back to when headlines were carved from blocks of oak, massages the … Read more

How do so many Japanese play golf in a country with so few golf courses?

how do so many japanese play golf in a country with so few golf courses

Golf has become something of a national pastime in Japan, claiming more than 12.5 million enthusiasts. They vie for playing time on the land-starved country’s few courses, which offer about as much elbow room as Grand Central Station at rush hour. These Japanese golf courses are unfathomably expensive, membership at Koganei Country Club in Tokyo … Read more